Juan D. Latorre1, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco2, Michael H. Kogut3, Jose L.Vicente4, RossWolfenden4, AmandaWolfenden1, Billy M. Hargis1,Vivek A. Kuttappan1 and GuillermoTellez 1*
1 Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA 2 Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico 3 United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX, USA 4 Pacific Vet Group-USA, Inc., Fayetteville, AR, USA Edited by: Nobuko Mori, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Japan Reviewed by: Takeshi Ohkubo, Ibaraki University, Japan Hiroshi Takemitsu, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Japan *Correspondence: Guillermo Tellez, The John Kirkpatrick Skeeles Poultry Health Laboratory, Department of Poultry Science, Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, 1260 W. Maple, POSC 0-114, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA e-mail: email@example.com
Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs), leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of these polysaccharides. Previously, an in vitro study con-ducted in our laboratory showed that inclusion of certain Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous phytase, lipase, protease, cellulase, and xylanase in high-NSP diets significantly reduced both digesta viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacil-lus-DFM were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch turkey poults in two independent experiments. In both experiments, day-of-hatch turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON) or a DFM treated diet (n D25 birds/group). At 10 days-of-age, all turkey poults from experiments 1 and 2 were weighted and 12 turkey poults/group were randomly selected and humanely killed. Liver samples were aseptically collected to eval-uate bacterial translocation, and intestinal digesta samples were individually collected to evaluate viscosity. Additionally, in experiment 2 both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters. In both experiments, the treated group showed a reduction in the total number of coliforms in the liver and a reduced digesta viscosity when compared to the CON group (P <0.05).Turkey poults fed the Bacillus-DFM candidate had increased tibia diameter, breaking strength, ash content, calcium content, and phosphorus content when compared with CON turkey poults. In summary, turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompa-nied by a reduction in bone mineralization; however, these adverse effects can be prevented by the inclusion of selected a Bacillus-DFM candidate in high-NSP diets.
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, digesta viscosity, bone mineralization, turkey poults, rye